The French Revolution was a period of radical social and political disorder in France The causes of the French Revolution are two sides of the same coin; one. Causes of the French Revolution. 1. International: struggle for hegemony and. Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state. 2. Political conflict: conflict. PDF | The French Revolution traces the long and short term causes of the French Revolution to the October Days and its consequences up to.
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FRENCH REVOLUTION. TASK 1: What can you remember about France under Louis XIV? What did all the European monarchs try to copy from France and its. The following Lectures were delivered by Lord Acton as Regius Profes- sor of Modern History at Cambridge in the academical years –96,. – The French Revolution, by Thomas Carlyle. VOLUME I. BOOK 1.I. Chapter I. Chapter II. Chapter III. Chapter IV. BOOK opvibpaberland.cf Chapter I. Chapter.
Log In Sign Up. Anotida Chikumbu. Study Guide: The French society was divided into three distinct classes notably the first, second and third estate. The first and second estates were the most privileged classes whereas the third estate was the most oppressed.
These two classes ordinarily enjoyed state privileges The outbreak of the French Revolution in including exemption from taxation, royal was the result of a combination of power, land tenure, rents and income. The factors that historians still debate.
Over the first and second estate was made of nobles course of the 18th century, France and clergymen many of whom lived experienced the unfolding of pathetically sad luxuriously with Louis the XVI2 at Versailles. The prime cause of this was indeed directly to contribute to the economy but the abuse of people by the existing system of waited anxiously to consume its fruits.
These malpractices the third estate French Peasantry lived were thwarted the fundamental freedoms and severely appalling, the estate constituted the liberties of the people. Social heavy taxation which was levied so unfairly injustice, inequality, socio-economic and and took most of their hard earned income. This entailed obligations such as unpaid as chronic problems that caused discontent.
The various taxes that the third and the elaborate class stratifications. In estate was expected to pay included: Against this background, condemned the ancient regime came as a the peasants were dissatisfied by their catalyst rather than a cause in literal senses. He was referred to as century until when the system was abolished by Citizen Louis Capet during the final four months of his the French revolution life. Politically, the third estate was denied recognition, representation and participation Injustice and lawlessness defined the in the system of government.
In arrogant modus operandi of the ancient regime. The fashion, jurisdiction and administration of administration of justice under Louis XVI was government was all vested in the King Louis arbitrary and massively politicized. The XVI who indiscriminately prejudiced the lawful ancient regime practised a system that was and unlawful interests of the clergy and k o as the lettre de catche 3 sealed letter nobility against the third estate. The system in which people were arrested without trial was that of absolutism.
The government or enemy of the nobility and class was however excluded from official clergy classes.
According to Dennis Richards, positions in government service. Once independent feudal domains, the regions of France were acquired throughout the Middle Ages by various French kings, a process that continued into the eighteenth century.
For example, Brittany was incorporated by marriage to the French crown in , and the duchy of Lorraine was added in The papal enclave of the city of Avignon and its surroundings was acquired in The two top tiers of society, the First and Second Estates, dominated the Third and monopolized education, the high posts in church and government, and the upper echelons of the military. Within these privileged classes, there were wide differences: wealthy nobles idled away their time at the kings court at Versailles, while others were often poor, dwelling in rundown chteaux in the countryside, living on the fees they collected from the peasants who tilled their land.
Similarly, bishops and abbots, also of noble strain, enjoyed courtly life, owned land and mansions, and lived well off peasant labor and royal subsidies.
The village priest or curate, on the other hand, was often as poor as his ock, living beside a village church and surviving on the output of his small vegetable garden and on local donations. The upper crust of the Third Estate comprised a broad spectrum of nonnoble but propertied and professional families that today we refer to as the upper middle class the bourgeoisie. They were between 2 and 3 million strong and included industrialists, rich merchants, doctors, lawyers, wealthy farmers, provincial notaries, and other legal ofcials such as village court justices.
Below them in social status were the artisans and craftsmen, who had their own hierarchy of masters, journeymen, and apprentices; then came shopkeepers, tradesmen, and retailers.
They, in turn, could look down on the poor day laborers, impoverished peasants, and, nally, the indigent beggars. Throughout the history of France, as distinct historical divisions were brought together under one crown, the king generally accepted the The Setting institutions of each locale, such as local parlements, customs, and laws.
Hence, no commonly recognized law or administrative practices prevailed throughout the realm, and, with the exception of certain royal edicts, each area relied on its own local authorities and traditions to maintain order. In northern France, for example, at least 65 general customs and local ones were observed. Another was the fact that many did not speak French in their everyday lives, if at all.
On the fairly densely populated rocky Brittany peninsula, the generally poor native inhabitants spoke Breton, the Celtic language of their ancestors, who had arrived there from southwest England in the fth and sixth centuries.
Totally different from French and Breton, Basque, a language of unknown provenance, was spoken by the people of the southwest. The Basques occupied the western Pyrenees Mountains long before Roman times.
Although French derived from Latin, the languages spoken north and south of the Loire began to diverge, the former inuenced by the speech of early Germanic invaders. Two distinct languages emerged during the Middle Ages, the langue dol of the north and the langue doc of the south. The terms derive from the words for yes in each of the languages at the time.
In the south, Provenal sometimes referred to as Occitan , derived from langue doc, became the language spoken by about one-fourth of the population of the entire country.
Many local dialects developed within its orbit. One, Franco-Provenal, for example, refers to a distinctive group of dialects spoken northeast of the Provenal area, extending slightly into Switzerland and Italy. By the time of the revolution, the French of langue dol, with Paris as its social status symbol, was making inroads in the south and reducing Provenal to the status of a rustic and socially inferior dialect.
Patois, dialects particular to a small region or hamlet, as in the Pyrenees valleys and other remote places, continued relatively free from Parisian inuence. Daily Life during the French Revolution In the east, a German dialect persisted in Alsace, a formerly Germanspeaking region that came under the sovereignty of France in , and another language, Flemish, related to Dutch, was spoken by a small population near the Belgian border.
In most villages where French was not the language or where the inhabitants were illiterate, there was usually a priest with enough education to read and write when a villager needed someone with these skills. Visitors to France, although speaking good French, reported many difculties with the language. Thrale, who spent several months there in and visited again in , noted that when peasants in Flanders were addressed, they did not understand a word of French and that most signs in French had the Flemish translation as well.
He writes about Flanders and Alsace: not one farmer in twenty speaks French. In Brittany, he had a similar experience. Henry Swinburne, who climbed in the Pyrenees Mountains, came across an incomprehensible languageBasqueand Sir Nathaniel Wraxal, writer and parliamentarian, wrote in that even in Bayonne, they speak a jargon called the Basque, which has scarce any afnity either with the French, Spanish, or even the Gascon dialect.
As travelers ventured down the Rhne valley toward Avignon, they encountered langue doc. It was in this region, after leaving Le Puy de Montlimar and heading for Aubenas, that Young barely escaped injury in August when his horse backed his chaise over a precipice.
If he had been injured, he mused: A blessed country for a broken limb connement for six weeks or two months at the Cheval Blanc, at Aubenas, an inn that would have been purgatory itself to one of my hogs: alone, without relation, friend or servant, and not one person in sixty that speaks French.
Such power reached its zenith under Louis XIV, who died in , and it remained the case, at least in theory, under his successors. Through negotiations with the papacy, French kings won the right to ll all bishoprics and other beneces with persons of the kings choice, instead of the popes, thus assuring a pliable clergy dependent on the monarchs will.
The Setting French kings were obliged to supplement the royal income from taxes by selling government ofces to pay for the interminable wars and for the expenses of the royal court. The downloadr, noble or not, paid the crown a sum of money and derived the nancial benets and privileges of the ofce. These positions, such as secretary to the king, of which there were many Louis XVI had , or magistrate of a court, became the individuals private property.
Wealthy bourgeois who secured such a position were often elevated to the noble class, creating a new type of nobility that did not derive its legitimacy from family and birth; these new nobles were referred to as Nobility of the Robe, as opposed to the old Nobility of the Sword, which scorned the newcomers.
These ofces remained a source of money for the monarchy until the revolution when, it has been estimated, there were 51, venal ofces in France. The eighteenth century was nonetheless one of the great ages in the countrys history, with France the richest and most powerful nation on the European continent. French taste and styles in architecture, interior decoration, dress, and manners were copied throughout western society.
The political and social ideas of French writers inuenced both thought and action, and French became the second language of educated people around the world. Excellent roads were constructed in the vicinity of some of the larger cities, although they remained poor in other places. The French merchant marine expanded to more than 5, ships that engaged in lucrative trade with Africa, America, and the West Indies and enriched the merchants of the French seaports.
The income of urban laborers and artisans, however, barely kept pace with ination, and most peasants, with little surplus to sell and heavily burdened by taxes, tithes, and, for some, leftover feudal obligations to their lord of the manor, continued to eke out a miserable existence. The advocates of badly needed governmental scal and social reform became increasingly vocal during the reign of Louis XVI but were resisted by those who wielded power.
Points of view expressed in letters, pamphlets, and essays ushered in an age of reason, science, and humanity. Such men argued that all mankind had certain natural rights, such as life, liberty, and ownership of property, and that governments should exist to guarantee these rights. Some, in the later part of the century, advocated the right of self-government. These ideas resonated both among nobles discontented with the centralization of power in the king and within the growing bourgeoisie, which wanted a voice in government.
Daily Life during the French Revolution Men of reason often viewed the church as the principal agency that enslaved the human mind and many preferred a form of Deism, accepting God and the idea of a future existence but rejecting Christian theology based on authority and unquestioned faith. Human aspirations, they believed, should be centered not on a hereafter but rather on the means of making life more agreeable on earth. Nothing was attacked with more intensity and ferocity than the church, with all its political power and wealth and its suppression of the exercise of reason.
Proponents of the Enlightenment were often referred to by the French word philosophes. Charles de Montesquieu, one of the earliest representatives of the movement, began satirizing contemporary French politics, social conditions, and ecclesiastical matters in his Persian Letters His work The Spirit of Laws examined three forms of government republicanism, monarchy, and despotism. His criticism of French institutions under the Bourbons contributed signicantly to ideas that encouraged French revolutionaries.
Similarly, the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, especially his Social Contract , a political treatise, had a profound inuence on French political and educational thought. The Encyclopedia, in which numerous philosophers collaborated, was edited by the rationalist Denis Diderot in Paris between and and was a powerful propaganda weapon against ecclesiastical authority, superstition, conservatism, and the semifeudal social structures of the time.
It was suppressed by the authorities but was nevertheless secretly printed, with supplements added until Voltaire, for example, one of the most celebrated writers of the day, known in Paris salons as a brilliant and sarcastic wit, spent 11 months in the Bastille and was often exiled for his satires on the aristocracy and the clergy. The language of the Enlightenment entered the vocabulary and the words citizen, nation, virtue, republican, and democracy, among others, spread throughout France.
The Seven Years War ended in with Great Britains acquisition of almost the entire French empire in North America and shattered French pretensions to rule India, resulting in abject humiliation for France, while the costs greatly increased the countrys already heavy debt. By , the countrys debt service alone ran at about 60 percent of the budget. His reported prophecy After me, the deluge was soon to be fullled. LOUIS XVI Home to about 50, people, the town of Versailles, primarily a residential community, lies 12 miles southwest of Paris and is the site of the The Setting royal palace and gardens built by Louis XIV, who, along with his court and departments of government, occupied it beginning in The deaths of his two elder brothers and of his father, the only son of Louis XV, made the young prince dauphin of France in In , he married Marie-Antoinette, the youngest daughter of the archduchess Maria-Theresa of Austria.
Twenty years old and inexperienced when he began his reign, Louis XVI ruled over the most populous country in Europe, where millions belonged to a uid population in search of work or were involved in lawlessness.
The country was burdened by debts and heavy taxation, resulting in widespread suffering among the ordinary people. If there was ever a time for a strong and decisive king, it was now.
Louis XVI was indecisive and easily inuenced by those around him, including his wife, who intervened to block needed reforms, especially the pressing problems of taxation.
Matters of state were not high on his agenda. He preferred to spend his time at hobbies such as hunting and tinkering with locks and clocks or gorging himself at the table. These included the marquis de La Fayette anglicized as Lafayette , who in left French military service to enter the American continental army, where he was commissioned major general and became an intimate associate of George Washington.
In the minds of many, the American Declaration of Independence signaled, for the rst time, that some people were progressing beyond the discussion of enlightened ideas and were putting them into practice. To those who clamored for a voice in their own government and who detested the abuses of the monarchy, the American republic appeared an ideal state.
French philosophy had prepared segments of society to receive with enthusiasm the political doctrines and the portrait of social life that came from across the Atlantic.
By intervening in support of the Americans, he hoped to weaken England and recover colonies and trade lost in the war. The price of aiding the budding United States of America was about 1. Within two years, however, most of his reforms had been withdrawn, and his dismissal, forced by reactionary members of the nobility and clergy, was supported by the queen.
Turgots successor was a Swiss banker, Jacques Necker, who was made director general of nance in and was expected to bring stability to the chaotic nances of the state. Idolized by the people for attempting to bring about much-needed reforms, he was disliked by the court aristocracy and the queen, whose wildly extravagant spending he tried to curb.
Weakwilled and irresolute, Louis XVI, who made erratic decisions based on the interests of ofcials ingratiated at court, dismissed Necker in , only to recall him in September as the state sank deeper into bankruptcy. Continuing depression, high unemployment, and the highest bread prices of the century alienated and incensed the people of Paris, but their faith in Necker persisted.
He was acclaimed by the public as the only man capable of restoring sound administration to the hectic French nancial system. In the following year, his popularity was further increased when, along with others, he recommended to the king that the Estates-General, a representative assembly from the three estates, which had not met since and which was the only body that could legally sanction tax increases, be convened.
The assembly met in Versailles on May 5, Opposed by aristocrats at court for his daring reform plans, which included both the abolition of all feudal rights of the aristocracy and the church and support for the Third Estate, Necker was again dismissed, on July 11, This act of dismissal and rumors that royal troops were gathering around the city aroused the fury of the populace of Paris. Necker had supported the king in the decision to grant the Third Estate as many representatives in the Estates-General as the First and Second Estates combined, but both men failed to make a ruling on the method of votingwhether to vote by estate, in which case the rst two estates would certainly override the third, or by simple majority rule, giving each representative one vote, which would benet the Third Estate.
The representatives brought to the Assembly cahiers de dolances notebooks of grievances produced by every parish and corporation or guild in the country. These provided the information needed by the 1, delegates, consisting of representatives of the Third Estate, mostly lawyers; nobles the vast majority nobles of the sword ; and clerical delegates, The Setting Troops ring on rioting workers at Faubourg St. Bibliothque Nationale de France. The royal ministers were chastised for their scal inefciency and arbitrary decisions.
The king was urged to make a full disclosure of state debt and to concede to the Estates-General control over expenditures and taxes.
The belief was also widespread that the church, whose noble upper echelon lived in splendor but whose parish priests often were mired in poverty, was in dire need of reform. The cahiers expressed the need for scal and judicial changes, demanding that the church and the nobility pay their share of taxes and that justice be uniform, less costly, and more expeditious and the laws and punishments more humane.
The abolition of internal trade boundaries and free transport of goods throughout the country were also generally considered to be highly benecial to the realm. There were sharp differences among the three estates, especially in the countryside, where peasant, bourgeois, church, and noble interests 10 Daily Life during the French Revolution Opening of the Estates-General at Versailles, May 5, The XVI who indiscriminately prejudiced the lawful ancient regime practised a system that was and unlawful interests of the clergy and k o as the lettre de catche 3 sealed letter nobility against the third estate.
The system in which people were arrested without trial was that of absolutism. The government or enemy of the nobility and class was however excluded from official clergy classes. According to Dennis Richards, positions in government service. They were some thousand of these writs were issued denied religious freedom, voting rights and in the reign of LXV and another 14 thousand the latitude to organise opposition under LXVI.
Furthermore, many jurists during movements against the ancient regime. The the time were indiscriminately inept and convening of the estates general or French corrupt.
Civil or criminal proceedings parliament in was one such typical instituted in the courts of law were massively example that demonstrated the vigorous prejudiced in favour of the royal class. To stance of the first estate to deny the third make matters worse, the structural setup of estate equal political representation and legal codes in France before was in participation. Numerically, the third estate shambles. There was no uniform code of law.
In one town for instance, there address the cahiers, the so-called grievances were over 20 feudal courts.
In these of the third estate. It malpractices did nothing but precipitate deep played an important role in the internal conflicts of seated resentment against the government of France and for most of its history was used as a state prison by the kings of France. It was stormed by a crowd Louis XVI.
Social injustice and lawlessness was on 14 July , in the French Revolution, becoming an deeply resented such that when the important symbol for the French Republican movement, and was later demolished and replaced by the Place de la Bastille. This was common in ministers, and closed with the royal seal, or cachet.